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Loricariidae Species Identification

Discussion in 'Plecos' started by davo, Feb 26, 2006.

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  1. davo

    davo
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    PLECO?
    At some point, fish exporters started attributing the pleco name to other Loricariids. Since plecos were so popular this makes perfect sense because the exporters had to call the fish something that importers would associate with a popular fish and buy. The name stuck and so all Loricariids are now called plecos even though there is only currently one single fish that is correctly a pleco, Hypostomus plecostomus. In fact, pleco is now more widely used by hobbyists than Loricariid - the proper name.

    THE L NUMBER
    The "L Number" system began when two German magazines began featuring newly discovered Loricariids in their magazines. Since these species were not yet described to science, the magazines began assigning them "L numbers". The German magazine "DATZ" (Die Aquarien und Terrarienzeitschrift) started with the designation L1 for the Loricariid which has now been described as Glyptopterichthys joselimaianus. So now L1 is retired. Another German magazine "Das Aquarium", also began to run a similar feature in its magazine and labeled the fishes as LDA followed by a number. At the time of writing, the DATZ L system is somewhere above L370 and the LDA system is above LDA 70 - neither show signs of slowing. This numbering system has caught on and new species of Corydoras are now being assigned "C Numbers".

    GENERAL

    Most “plecos” need a very good filtration due to them producing a lot of waste, they need lots of hiding places, and also a well oxygenated tank. Some also need a decent current (or are at least happier with). Also sandy or small pea-shaped gravel with groups of rounded stones are a good bottom substrate, nothing sharp. The majority of plecos are not good algae removers, so be careful if selecting simply for this affect.

    BASIC WATER PARAMETERS
    These are the basic water parameters, unless otherwise posted.

    pH: 6.5-7.2
    Temperature: 72-80dF

    REFERENCES
    Aqualog: All the L numbers
    www.planetcatfish.com

     
  2. WyldFya

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    [post=751138]L001-L005[/post], [post=751409]L006-L010a[/post], [post=751721]L011-L015[/post], [post=755883]L016-L020[/post], [post=779113]L021-L025[/post], [post=779117]L026-L030[/post], [post=888587]L031-L035[/post], [post=889449]L036-L040[/post], [post=891925]L041-L045[/post], [post=891931]L046-L050[/post], [post=891934]L051-L055[/post], [post=891937]L056-L060[/post], [post=942716]L061-L065[/post], [post=942718]L066-L070[/post], [post=942720]L071-L075[/post], [post=942721]L076-L080[/post], [post=942733]L081-L085[/post], [post=942736]L086-L090[/post], [post=942729]L091-L095[/post], [post=942732]L096-L100[/post], [post=907857]L101-L105[/post], [post=907858]L106-L110[/post], [post=907859]L111-L115[/post], [post=907861]L116-L120[/post], [post=907862]L121-L125[/post], [post=907864]L126-L130[/post], [post=907866]L131-L135[/post], [post=907867]L136-L140[/post], [post=907870]L141-L145[/post], [post=907871]L146-L150[/post], [post=907872]L151-L155[/post], [post=907876]L156-L160[/post], [post=907882]L161-L165[/post], [post=907883]L166-L170[/post], [post=907884]L171-L175[/post], [post=907885]L176-L180[/post], [post=907886]L181-L185[/post], [post=907887]L186-L190[/post], [post=907893]L191-L195[/post], [post=907897]L196-L199[/post], [post=907898]L200-L205[/post], [post=907899]L206-L210[/post], [post=907900]L211-L215[/post], [post=907901]L216-L220[/post], [post=907904]L221-L225[/post], [post=907906]L226-L230[/post], [post=907907]L231-L235[/post], [post=907908]L236-L240[/post], [post=907910]L241-L245[/post], [post=907911]L246-L250[/post], [post=907912]L251-L255[/post], [post=907913]L256-L259[/post], [post=907917]L260-L265[/post], [post=907918]L266-L270[/post], [post=907919]L271-L275[/post], [post=907920]L276-L280[/post], [post=907921]L281-L285[/post], [post=907922]L286-L290[/post], [post=907923]L291-L295[/post], [post=907925]L296-L300[/post], [post=907928]L301-L305[/post], [post=907929]L306-L310[/post], [post=907930]L311-L315[/post], [post=907933]L316-L320[/post], [post=907934]L321-L325[/post], [post=907935]L326-L330[/post], [post=907936]L331-L335[/post], [post=907937]L336-L340[/post], [post=907938]L341-L345[/post], [post=907940]L346-L350[/post], [post=907943]L351-L355[/post], [post=907944]L356-L360[/post], [post=907945]L361-L365[/post], [post=907946]L366-L370[/post], [post=907947]L371-L375[/post], [post=907948]L376-L380[/post], [post=907952]L381-L385[/post], [post=907954]L386-L390[/post], [post=907956]L391-L395[/post], [post=907958]L396-L400[/post], [post=907959]L600[/post], [post=907977]LDA01-LDA05[/post], [post=907978]LDA06-LDA10[/post], [post=907980]LDA11-LDA15[/post], [post=907983]LDA16-LDA20[/post], [post=907985]LDA21-LDA25[/post], [post=907986]LDA26-LDA30[/post], [post=907988]LDA31-LDA35[/post], [post=907989]LDA36-LDA40[/post], [post=907991]LDA41-LDA45[/post], [post=907992]LDA46-LDA50[/post], [post=907995]LDA51-LDA55[/post], [post=907997]LDA56-LDA60[/post], [post=907998]LDA61-LDA65[/post], [post=908000]LDA66-LDA70[/post], [post=908005]LDA71-LDA76[/post]
     
  3. WyldFya

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    L001 -- Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus
    Common name(s):
    Sailfin pleco, gold spot pleco, L001
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily vegetable matter. As they grow more meaty foods should be made available.
    Max Size: 30 cm, or 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Cave spawners. G. joselimaianus needs large spaces to breed in.
    Notes: Often sold as a common pleco.

    L002 -- Panaque sp.
    Common name(s):
    Tiger pleco, L002
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet:
    Vegetation, and some meat.
    Max Size: 12 cm, or 5"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
    Spawning: Cave spawner.
    Notes:

    L003 -- Baryancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    L003
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Needs both vegetable and meat.
    Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
    Spawning: Cave spawner.
    Notes:

    L004 --
    Hypancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
    Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
    Spawning: Cave Spawner
    Notes:

    L005 -- Hypancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
    Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
    Spawning: Cave Spawner
    Notes:
     
  4. WyldFya

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    L006 -- Peckoltia oligospila
    Common name(s):
    Brown spot peckoltia, L006
    Synonyms: Chaetostoma oligospila
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore. Prefers meat.
    Max Size: 12 cm, or 5"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Guama near Ourem
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes:

    L007 -- Leporacanthicus Galaxias
    Common name(s):
    Tooth nose, Vampire pleco, Galaxy pleco, Tusken pleco, L007, L029
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care:
    None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Guama near Ourem
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Contrary to the name, this pleco does need quite a bit of vegetation.

    L008 -- Peckoltia sp.
    Common name(s):
    Leopard peckoltia, L008
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, preferring meats
    Max Size: 10 cm, or 4"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio do Para near Oeiras do Para
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes:

    L009 -- Peckoltia arenaria
    Common name(s):
    Smokey pleco, L009
    Synonyms: Hemiancistrus arenaria
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meaty foods.
    Max Size: 13 cm, or 4.5"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio do Para near Oeiras do Para
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes:

    L010 -- Loricaria lata
    Common name(s):
    Whiptail catfish, whiptail pleco, L010
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards vegetation.
    Max Size: 16 cm, or 6"
    Locality: Brazil: Upper Rio Xingu
    Spawning: Mouth brooder
    Notes:

    L010a -- Hemiloricaria sp.
    Common name(s):
    Red lizard whiptail, red lizard pleco, L010a
    Synonyms: rhinoloricaria sp.
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 11 cm, 4"
    Locality:
    Spawning: Not known, thought to be mouth brooders.
    Notes: Very little is known about this species.
     
  5. davo

    davo
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    L011 -- Squaliforma cf. emarginata
    Common name(s):
    Red fin thresher, thresher pleco, L011, L035, L116, L131, L153
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards vegetation
    Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Will eat algae, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

    L012 -- Hemiancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    L012, L013, L036
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
    Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Will eat algae, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

    L013 -- Hemiancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    L013, L012, L036
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
    Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Will eat algae and should be offered wood, but is not required.

    L014 -- Scobinancistrus aureatus
    Common name(s):
    Goldie pleco, sunshine pleco, L014
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Carnivore
    Max Size: 45 cm, 18"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Can be aggressive towards other loricariids.

    L015 -- Peckoltia vittata
    Common name(s):
    Candystripe pleco, L015
    Synonyms: Chaetostomus vittatus
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
    Max Size: 14 cm, 6"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes:
     
  6. davo

    davo
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    L016 -- Oligancistrus punctatissimus
    Common name(s):
    L016
    Synonyms: Parancistrus punctatissimus, chaetostomus punctatissimus
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 15 cm, 6"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Algae eater, and should be offered wood, but is not required. See LDA14. Adults can have more spots that are much smaller.

    L017 -- Hopliancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    L017, L067
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Algae eater, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

    L018 -- Baryancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    Gold nugget pleco, L018
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, tendency toward meat
    Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes:

    L019 -- Baryancistrus sp.
    Common name(s): L019
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Algae eater, and should have wood, but is not required.

    L020 -- Oligancistrus sp.
    Common name(s):
    L020
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Algae eater, and should have wood, but is not required.
     
  7. WyldFya

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    L021 -- Pterygoplichthys pardalis
    Common name(s): Common pleco, L021, L023
    Synonyms: Liposarcus pardalis, Hypostomus pardalis, L. jeanesianus...
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivorous, when younger taking mostly veggie foods as well as protein based. When matures, the meaty foods should be more available.
    Max Size: 19"
    Locality: Throughout Amazonia (also established in many areas of the US as a invasive species)
    Spawning: Commercially bred in aqua-farms on large scale
    Notes: Often sold as a common pleco, and there are many common hybrids of this species.

    L022 -- Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus
    Common name(s): Sailfin pleco, gold spot pleco, L001, L022
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily vegetable matter. As they grow more meaty foods should be made available.
    Max Size: 30 cm, or 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Cave spawners. G. joselimaianus needs large spaces to breed in.
    Notes: Often sold as a common pleco.

    L023 -- Pterygoplichthys pardalis
    Common name(s): Common pleco, L021, L023
    Synonyms: Liposarcus pardalis, Hypostomus pardalis, L. jeanesianus...
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivorous, when younger taking mostly veggie foods as well as protein based. When matures, the meaty foods should be more available.
    Max Size: 19"
    Locality: Throughout Amazonia (also established in many areas of the US as a invasive species)
    Spawning: Commercially bred in aqua-farms on large scale
    Notes: Often sold as a common pleco, and there are many common hybrids of this species.

    L024 -- Pseudacanthicus sp.
    Common name(s): Flame Pleco, Red Fin Cactus Pleco, L024
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily carnivore, consisting of meaty foods. Vegetables to be offered to provide balanced diet.
    Max Size: 15"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Cave spawner, difficult in captivity due to space needed.
    Notes: Can be very territorial and sometimes aggressive towards conspecifics and other Loricariidae, especially as they age (although more a male trait). Often confused with L025 (below), however can be told apart by size but more easily, colour.

    L025 -- Pseudacanthicus sp.
    Common name(s): Scarlet pleco, L025
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Mainly a carnivore based diet, with some vegetables to provide balance.
    Max Size: 18"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu
    Spawning: Cave spawner, difficult in captivity due to space needed.
    Notes: Often confused with the above (L24). Again can be very territorial and agressive to other Loricariidae and other bottom dwellers. There is a 'Sao Felix Scarlet' which is prized for the more vibrant colour red that this locale is associated.
     
  8. WyldFya

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    L026 -- Baryancistrus niveatus
    Common name(s): L026
    Synonyms: Hypostomus niveatus, Parancistrus niveatus
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: A deeper water pleco that sifts through the organic biofilm, in such of protein. Will eat mainly protein foods, high protein/fibre is best. Vegetables should also be offered. Worms, molluscs, larvae and peas are among favourites.
    Max Size: 12"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Not reported, likely cave spawner.
    Notes: Niveatus= white spotted.

    L027 -- Panaque nigrolineatus
    Common name(s): Royal pleco, L027
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily high roughage vegetables (potatoes etc.), wood and occasional protein foods.
    Max Size: 17"
    Locality: Amazonia (including Xingu, Tocantins, Tapajos, Araguaya)
    Spawning: Not reported
    Notes: Wood is important, for cellulose, roughage and debatedly lignin and needs it to survive. Bogwoods are therefore a must when keeping panaque species. There are many different forms, P. cf. nigrolineatus including the goldline, platinum, watermelon, red-fin/longnosed, olive, which are found in different locales, and have difference in markings and colours.

    L028 -- Hypancistrus sp.
    Common name(s): Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
    Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
    Spawning: Cave Spawner
    Notes:

    L029 -- Leporacanthicus galaxias
    Common name(s): Tooth nose, Vampire pleco, Galaxy pleco, Tusken pleco, L007, L029
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: Prefers faster flowing water
    Diet: Mainly carnivorous, but important to offer veggies when possible. Favourites includes molluscs and prawns.
    Max Size: Slightly larger than L007
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Was thought to be the same fish as L007, but is distinguishable by its longer snout and a lower dorsal fin. Can be very territorial and agressive when housed with other Loricariidae and similarly sized bottom dwellers. Often shy and prefers shaded areas.

    L030 -- Oligancistrus sp.
    Common name(s): L030
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Predominantly a protein based diet, supplemented with vegetables.
    Max Size: 6"
    Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu
    Notes: When this Loricariidae first was described by the original DATZ, pictures showed more than one species, that possibly differed in genus. Therefore this L-number is under much scrutiny.
     
  9. davo

    davo
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    L031 -- Parancistrus nudiventris
    Common name(s): L031, L176, L300, LDA04, Peppermint Pleco
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None, although likes some flow, but is highly tolerent of poor water quality in comparison to many other Loricariidae.
    Diet: Sifts through the detritous commonly eating algae and anything else available. Is a omnivore and so should be given a range of meaty foods and vegetables.
    Max Size: 7"
    Locality: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Not reported; cave spawner
    Notes: One of only two scientifically described Parancistrus sp. making it easy to identify. A unique characteristic to Parancistrus is the presence of fleshy, fimbriate folds on the naked area surrounding the dorsal fin (esp. in breeding males). Is adapted to withstand poor water quality and low oxygen levels for extended periods of time.

    L032 -- Ancistrus sp.
    Common name(s): L032
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Mainly vegetables with some protein based food (e.g. larvaee, bloodworms)
    Max Size: 4"
    Locality: Rio Araguia and Rio Tocantins, Brazil
    Spawning: Cave spawner, easily bred in aquarium.
    Notes: Should be treated as most other Ancistrus species. Often confused with other Ancistrus with similar markings (e.g. L125, L124, L126, L127)

    L033 -- Lasiancistrus
    Common name(s): L033
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, preference for vegetables
    Max Size: 4.5-5"
    Locality: Lower portion of Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Not reported, cave spawner, chances are similar conditions to Ancistrus
    Notes: This pleco is unique due to the presence of whiskerlike odontodes on the cheek as adults (larger in males). It has also been observed that adults sometimes have a dark red lower half of their dorsal. Sometimes mistaken with L178 (esp. when juvenile). Whisker like odontodes are thought could be used for larval mimicks to trick females, much like Ancistrus.

    L034 -- Ancistrus ranunculus
    Common name(s): L034, Medusa Pleco
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivorous, preference towards vegetables (however likes meaty foods more than other Ancistrus species)
    Max Size: 5"
    Locality: Rio Tocantins and Xingu
    Spawning: Cave spawner, easily bred
    Notes: Has a very large head width, and other than that displays common Ancistrus characteristics. Females exibit larger tentacles than some other Ancistrus (but still not as large as the males). Likes rockwork.

    L035 -- Squaliforma cf. emarginata
    Common name(s): L011, L035, L108, L116, Red Fin Thresher Pleco, Thresher Pleco
    Synonyms: Plecostomus emarginata, Hypostomus emarginata
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore with a preference for greens. More and more proteins should be added with age.
    Max Size: 16"
    Locality: Widespread throughout the amazon, but L035 was collected in Rio Araguaia
    Spawning: Unreported
    Notes: Peaceful fish, not particularly agressive. Likes swimming space aswell as hides. Reasonably active as far as Loricariidae go.
     
  10. davo

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    L036 -- Hemiancistrus spilomma
    Common name(s): L036
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore, preference to greens.
    Max Size: 5.5"
    Locality: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Not reported, likely never to have been done in aquaria.
    Notes: Rarely seen in the hobby and L12/L13 is often mistaken for this species, but the spots found on fins, lateral and dorsal plates are smaller, and the base colour is more grey. The genus is probably not a monophyletic group, and is used as a bit of a garbage can for hard to identify species, probably containing more than one genus. This species is considered by some to be a member of the genus Ancistomus, a distinct possibility.

    L037 -- Hypostomus sp.
    Common name(s): L037
    Synonyms: None (sometimes called a member of the Hypostomus cochliodon group, but is not)
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore
    Max Size: 8"
    Locality: Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Not reported in aquaria, probably a mud bank spawner.
    Notes: Identification of Hypostomus has no individual trait, and so species is recognised by colour and distinct patterning. Not rare, but an uncommon import.

    L038 -- Peckoltia sp.
    Common name(s): L038, Tiger Peckoltia
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: Omnivore with preference to protein based foods (worms, prawns etc.)
    Max Size: 4.5"
    Locality: Brazil, Mocajuba on the Rio Tocantins
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Similar to L002 but stripes are much thicker around the head, and less uniform. Also confused with L072 and L080.

    L039 -- Pseudancistrus niger
    Common name(s): L039
    Synonyms: Guyanancistrus niger, Hemiancistrus niger, Lasiancistrus niger
    Special Water Care: None, but prefers a fast flowing current.
    Diet: Omnivore with preference towards meaty foods.
    Max Size: 11"
    Locality: Oyapock River basin
    Spawning: Not reported, cave spawner.
    Notes: A very wide pleco reportedly more than 18cm between the tip of pectoral spines. Found in swift flow, among boulders, gravel and cobbles.

    L040 -- Harttia surinamensis
    Common name(s): L040
    Synonyms: None
    Special Water Care: None
    Diet: N/A
    Max Size: 7.4"
    Locality: Coastal rivers from Suriname River east to Approuague River, restricted to the Suriname River drainage
    Spawning: Cave spawner
    Notes: Not seen in the aquaria trade often, if at all. Found in the upper course of rivers on rocky and sandy bottoms
     
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