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    Loricariidae Species Identification

    Discussion in 'Plecos' started by davo, Feb 26, 2006.

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    1. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      PLECO?
      At some point, fish exporters started attributing the pleco name to other Loricariids. Since plecos were so popular this makes perfect sense because the exporters had to call the fish something that importers would associate with a popular fish and buy. The name stuck and so all Loricariids are now called plecos even though there is only currently one single fish that is correctly a pleco, Hypostomus plecostomus. In fact, pleco is now more widely used by hobbyists than Loricariid - the proper name.

      THE L NUMBER
      The "L Number" system began when two German magazines began featuring newly discovered Loricariids in their magazines. Since these species were not yet described to science, the magazines began assigning them "L numbers". The German magazine "DATZ" (Die Aquarien und Terrarienzeitschrift) started with the designation L1 for the Loricariid which has now been described as Glyptopterichthys joselimaianus. So now L1 is retired. Another German magazine "Das Aquarium", also began to run a similar feature in its magazine and labeled the fishes as LDA followed by a number. At the time of writing, the DATZ L system is somewhere above L370 and the LDA system is above LDA 70 - neither show signs of slowing. This numbering system has caught on and new species of Corydoras are now being assigned "C Numbers".

      GENERAL

      Most “plecos” need a very good filtration due to them producing a lot of waste, they need lots of hiding places, and also a well oxygenated tank. Some also need a decent current (or are at least happier with). Also sandy or small pea-shaped gravel with groups of rounded stones are a good bottom substrate, nothing sharp. The majority of plecos are not good algae removers, so be careful if selecting simply for this affect.

      BASIC WATER PARAMETERS
      These are the basic water parameters, unless otherwise posted.

      pH: 6.5-7.2
      Temperature: 72-80dF

      REFERENCES
      Aqualog: All the L numbers
      www.planetcatfish.com

       
    2. WyldFya

      WyldFya Baryancistrus demantoides
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      [post=751138]L001-L005[/post], [post=751409]L006-L010a[/post], [post=751721]L011-L015[/post], [post=755883]L016-L020[/post], [post=779113]L021-L025[/post], [post=779117]L026-L030[/post], [post=888587]L031-L035[/post], [post=889449]L036-L040[/post], [post=891925]L041-L045[/post], [post=891931]L046-L050[/post], [post=891934]L051-L055[/post], [post=891937]L056-L060[/post], [post=942716]L061-L065[/post], [post=942718]L066-L070[/post], [post=942720]L071-L075[/post], [post=942721]L076-L080[/post], [post=942733]L081-L085[/post], [post=942736]L086-L090[/post], [post=942729]L091-L095[/post], [post=942732]L096-L100[/post], [post=907857]L101-L105[/post], [post=907858]L106-L110[/post], [post=907859]L111-L115[/post], [post=907861]L116-L120[/post], [post=907862]L121-L125[/post], [post=907864]L126-L130[/post], [post=907866]L131-L135[/post], [post=907867]L136-L140[/post], [post=907870]L141-L145[/post], [post=907871]L146-L150[/post], [post=907872]L151-L155[/post], [post=907876]L156-L160[/post], [post=907882]L161-L165[/post], [post=907883]L166-L170[/post], [post=907884]L171-L175[/post], [post=907885]L176-L180[/post], [post=907886]L181-L185[/post], [post=907887]L186-L190[/post], [post=907893]L191-L195[/post], [post=907897]L196-L199[/post], [post=907898]L200-L205[/post], [post=907899]L206-L210[/post], [post=907900]L211-L215[/post], [post=907901]L216-L220[/post], [post=907904]L221-L225[/post], [post=907906]L226-L230[/post], [post=907907]L231-L235[/post], [post=907908]L236-L240[/post], [post=907910]L241-L245[/post], [post=907911]L246-L250[/post], [post=907912]L251-L255[/post], [post=907913]L256-L259[/post], [post=907917]L260-L265[/post], [post=907918]L266-L270[/post], [post=907919]L271-L275[/post], [post=907920]L276-L280[/post], [post=907921]L281-L285[/post], [post=907922]L286-L290[/post], [post=907923]L291-L295[/post], [post=907925]L296-L300[/post], [post=907928]L301-L305[/post], [post=907929]L306-L310[/post], [post=907930]L311-L315[/post], [post=907933]L316-L320[/post], [post=907934]L321-L325[/post], [post=907935]L326-L330[/post], [post=907936]L331-L335[/post], [post=907937]L336-L340[/post], [post=907938]L341-L345[/post], [post=907940]L346-L350[/post], [post=907943]L351-L355[/post], [post=907944]L356-L360[/post], [post=907945]L361-L365[/post], [post=907946]L366-L370[/post], [post=907947]L371-L375[/post], [post=907948]L376-L380[/post], [post=907952]L381-L385[/post], [post=907954]L386-L390[/post], [post=907956]L391-L395[/post], [post=907958]L396-L400[/post], [post=907959]L600[/post], [post=907977]LDA01-LDA05[/post], [post=907978]LDA06-LDA10[/post], [post=907980]LDA11-LDA15[/post], [post=907983]LDA16-LDA20[/post], [post=907985]LDA21-LDA25[/post], [post=907986]LDA26-LDA30[/post], [post=907988]LDA31-LDA35[/post], [post=907989]LDA36-LDA40[/post], [post=907991]LDA41-LDA45[/post], [post=907992]LDA46-LDA50[/post], [post=907995]LDA51-LDA55[/post], [post=907997]LDA56-LDA60[/post], [post=907998]LDA61-LDA65[/post], [post=908000]LDA66-LDA70[/post], [post=908005]LDA71-LDA76[/post]
       
    3. WyldFya

      WyldFya Baryancistrus demantoides
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      L001 -- Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus
      Common name(s):
      Sailfin pleco, gold spot pleco, L001
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily vegetable matter. As they grow more meaty foods should be made available.
      Max Size: 30 cm, or 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Cave spawners. G. joselimaianus needs large spaces to breed in.
      Notes: Often sold as a common pleco.

      L002 -- Panaque sp.
      Common name(s):
      Tiger pleco, L002
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet:
      Vegetation, and some meat.
      Max Size: 12 cm, or 5"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
      Spawning: Cave spawner.
      Notes:

      L003 -- Baryancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      L003
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Needs both vegetable and meat.
      Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
      Spawning: Cave spawner.
      Notes:

      L004 --
      Hypancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
      Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
      Spawning: Cave Spawner
      Notes:

      L005 -- Hypancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
      Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
      Spawning: Cave Spawner
      Notes:
       
    4. WyldFya

      WyldFya Baryancistrus demantoides
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      L006 -- Peckoltia oligospila
      Common name(s):
      Brown spot peckoltia, L006
      Synonyms: Chaetostoma oligospila
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore. Prefers meat.
      Max Size: 12 cm, or 5"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Guama near Ourem
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes:

      L007 -- Leporacanthicus Galaxias
      Common name(s):
      Tooth nose, Vampire pleco, Galaxy pleco, Tusken pleco, L007, L029
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care:
      None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Guama near Ourem
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Contrary to the name, this pleco does need quite a bit of vegetation.

      L008 -- Peckoltia sp.
      Common name(s):
      Leopard peckoltia, L008
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, preferring meats
      Max Size: 10 cm, or 4"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio do Para near Oeiras do Para
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes:

      L009 -- Peckoltia arenaria
      Common name(s):
      Smokey pleco, L009
      Synonyms: Hemiancistrus arenaria
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meaty foods.
      Max Size: 13 cm, or 4.5"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio do Para near Oeiras do Para
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes:

      L010 -- Loricaria lata
      Common name(s):
      Whiptail catfish, whiptail pleco, L010
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards vegetation.
      Max Size: 16 cm, or 6"
      Locality: Brazil: Upper Rio Xingu
      Spawning: Mouth brooder
      Notes:

      L010a -- Hemiloricaria sp.
      Common name(s):
      Red lizard whiptail, red lizard pleco, L010a
      Synonyms: rhinoloricaria sp.
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 11 cm, 4"
      Locality:
      Spawning: Not known, thought to be mouth brooders.
      Notes: Very little is known about this species.
       
    5. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      L011 -- Squaliforma cf. emarginata
      Common name(s):
      Red fin thresher, thresher pleco, L011, L035, L116, L131, L153
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards vegetation
      Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Will eat algae, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

      L012 -- Hemiancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      L012, L013, L036
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
      Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Will eat algae, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

      L013 -- Hemiancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      L013, L012, L036
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
      Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Will eat algae and should be offered wood, but is not required.

      L014 -- Scobinancistrus aureatus
      Common name(s):
      Goldie pleco, sunshine pleco, L014
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Carnivore
      Max Size: 45 cm, 18"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Can be aggressive towards other loricariids.

      L015 -- Peckoltia vittata
      Common name(s):
      Candystripe pleco, L015
      Synonyms: Chaetostomus vittatus
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency towards meat
      Max Size: 14 cm, 6"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes:
       
    6. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      L016 -- Oligancistrus punctatissimus
      Common name(s):
      L016
      Synonyms: Parancistrus punctatissimus, chaetostomus punctatissimus
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 15 cm, 6"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Algae eater, and should be offered wood, but is not required. See LDA14. Adults can have more spots that are much smaller.

      L017 -- Hopliancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      L017, L067
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 20 cm, 8"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Algae eater, and should be offered wood, but is not required.

      L018 -- Baryancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      Gold nugget pleco, L018
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, tendency toward meat
      Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes:

      L019 -- Baryancistrus sp.
      Common name(s): L019
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Algae eater, and should have wood, but is not required.

      L020 -- Oligancistrus sp.
      Common name(s):
      L020
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 30 cm, 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu near Altamira
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Algae eater, and should have wood, but is not required.
       
    7. WyldFya

      WyldFya Baryancistrus demantoides
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      L021 -- Pterygoplichthys pardalis
      Common name(s): Common pleco, L021, L023
      Synonyms: Liposarcus pardalis, Hypostomus pardalis, L. jeanesianus...
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivorous, when younger taking mostly veggie foods as well as protein based. When matures, the meaty foods should be more available.
      Max Size: 19"
      Locality: Throughout Amazonia (also established in many areas of the US as a invasive species)
      Spawning: Commercially bred in aqua-farms on large scale
      Notes: Often sold as a common pleco, and there are many common hybrids of this species.

      L022 -- Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus
      Common name(s): Sailfin pleco, gold spot pleco, L001, L022
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily vegetable matter. As they grow more meaty foods should be made available.
      Max Size: 30 cm, or 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Cave spawners. G. joselimaianus needs large spaces to breed in.
      Notes: Often sold as a common pleco.

      L023 -- Pterygoplichthys pardalis
      Common name(s): Common pleco, L021, L023
      Synonyms: Liposarcus pardalis, Hypostomus pardalis, L. jeanesianus...
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivorous, when younger taking mostly veggie foods as well as protein based. When matures, the meaty foods should be more available.
      Max Size: 19"
      Locality: Throughout Amazonia (also established in many areas of the US as a invasive species)
      Spawning: Commercially bred in aqua-farms on large scale
      Notes: Often sold as a common pleco, and there are many common hybrids of this species.

      L024 -- Pseudacanthicus sp.
      Common name(s): Flame Pleco, Red Fin Cactus Pleco, L024
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily carnivore, consisting of meaty foods. Vegetables to be offered to provide balanced diet.
      Max Size: 15"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Cave spawner, difficult in captivity due to space needed.
      Notes: Can be very territorial and sometimes aggressive towards conspecifics and other Loricariidae, especially as they age (although more a male trait). Often confused with L025 (below), however can be told apart by size but more easily, colour.

      L025 -- Pseudacanthicus sp.
      Common name(s): Scarlet pleco, L025
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Mainly a carnivore based diet, with some vegetables to provide balance.
      Max Size: 18"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu
      Spawning: Cave spawner, difficult in captivity due to space needed.
      Notes: Often confused with the above (L24). Again can be very territorial and agressive to other Loricariidae and other bottom dwellers. There is a 'Sao Felix Scarlet' which is prized for the more vibrant colour red that this locale is associated.
       
    8. WyldFya

      WyldFya Baryancistrus demantoides
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      L026 -- Baryancistrus niveatus
      Common name(s): L026
      Synonyms: Hypostomus niveatus, Parancistrus niveatus
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: A deeper water pleco that sifts through the organic biofilm, in such of protein. Will eat mainly protein foods, high protein/fibre is best. Vegetables should also be offered. Worms, molluscs, larvae and peas are among favourites.
      Max Size: 12"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Not reported, likely cave spawner.
      Notes: Niveatus= white spotted.

      L027 -- Panaque nigrolineatus
      Common name(s): Royal pleco, L027
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily high roughage vegetables (potatoes etc.), wood and occasional protein foods.
      Max Size: 17"
      Locality: Amazonia (including Xingu, Tocantins, Tapajos, Araguaya)
      Spawning: Not reported
      Notes: Wood is important, for cellulose, roughage and debatedly lignin and needs it to survive. Bogwoods are therefore a must when keeping panaque species. There are many different forms, P. cf. nigrolineatus including the goldline, platinum, watermelon, red-fin/longnosed, olive, which are found in different locales, and have difference in markings and colours.

      L028 -- Hypancistrus sp.
      Common name(s): Angelicus Pleco, peckoltia angelicus, L004, L005, L028, L073
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Primarily carnivorous.
      Max Size: 25 cm, or 10"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins near Cameta
      Spawning: Cave Spawner
      Notes:

      L029 -- Leporacanthicus galaxias
      Common name(s): Tooth nose, Vampire pleco, Galaxy pleco, Tusken pleco, L007, L029
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: Prefers faster flowing water
      Diet: Mainly carnivorous, but important to offer veggies when possible. Favourites includes molluscs and prawns.
      Max Size: Slightly larger than L007
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Was thought to be the same fish as L007, but is distinguishable by its longer snout and a lower dorsal fin. Can be very territorial and agressive when housed with other Loricariidae and similarly sized bottom dwellers. Often shy and prefers shaded areas.

      L030 -- Oligancistrus sp.
      Common name(s): L030
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Predominantly a protein based diet, supplemented with vegetables.
      Max Size: 6"
      Locality: Brazil: Rio Xingu
      Notes: When this Loricariidae first was described by the original DATZ, pictures showed more than one species, that possibly differed in genus. Therefore this L-number is under much scrutiny.
       
    9. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      L031 -- Parancistrus nudiventris
      Common name(s): L031, L176, L300, LDA04, Peppermint Pleco
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None, although likes some flow, but is highly tolerent of poor water quality in comparison to many other Loricariidae.
      Diet: Sifts through the detritous commonly eating algae and anything else available. Is a omnivore and so should be given a range of meaty foods and vegetables.
      Max Size: 7"
      Locality: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Not reported; cave spawner
      Notes: One of only two scientifically described Parancistrus sp. making it easy to identify. A unique characteristic to Parancistrus is the presence of fleshy, fimbriate folds on the naked area surrounding the dorsal fin (esp. in breeding males). Is adapted to withstand poor water quality and low oxygen levels for extended periods of time.

      L032 -- Ancistrus sp.
      Common name(s): L032
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Mainly vegetables with some protein based food (e.g. larvaee, bloodworms)
      Max Size: 4"
      Locality: Rio Araguia and Rio Tocantins, Brazil
      Spawning: Cave spawner, easily bred in aquarium.
      Notes: Should be treated as most other Ancistrus species. Often confused with other Ancistrus with similar markings (e.g. L125, L124, L126, L127)

      L033 -- Lasiancistrus
      Common name(s): L033
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, preference for vegetables
      Max Size: 4.5-5"
      Locality: Lower portion of Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Not reported, cave spawner, chances are similar conditions to Ancistrus
      Notes: This pleco is unique due to the presence of whiskerlike odontodes on the cheek as adults (larger in males). It has also been observed that adults sometimes have a dark red lower half of their dorsal. Sometimes mistaken with L178 (esp. when juvenile). Whisker like odontodes are thought could be used for larval mimicks to trick females, much like Ancistrus.

      L034 -- Ancistrus ranunculus
      Common name(s): L034, Medusa Pleco
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivorous, preference towards vegetables (however likes meaty foods more than other Ancistrus species)
      Max Size: 5"
      Locality: Rio Tocantins and Xingu
      Spawning: Cave spawner, easily bred
      Notes: Has a very large head width, and other than that displays common Ancistrus characteristics. Females exibit larger tentacles than some other Ancistrus (but still not as large as the males). Likes rockwork.

      L035 -- Squaliforma cf. emarginata
      Common name(s): L011, L035, L108, L116, Red Fin Thresher Pleco, Thresher Pleco
      Synonyms: Plecostomus emarginata, Hypostomus emarginata
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore with a preference for greens. More and more proteins should be added with age.
      Max Size: 16"
      Locality: Widespread throughout the amazon, but L035 was collected in Rio Araguaia
      Spawning: Unreported
      Notes: Peaceful fish, not particularly agressive. Likes swimming space aswell as hides. Reasonably active as far as Loricariidae go.
       
    10. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      L036 -- Hemiancistrus spilomma
      Common name(s): L036
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore, preference to greens.
      Max Size: 5.5"
      Locality: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Not reported, likely never to have been done in aquaria.
      Notes: Rarely seen in the hobby and L12/L13 is often mistaken for this species, but the spots found on fins, lateral and dorsal plates are smaller, and the base colour is more grey. The genus is probably not a monophyletic group, and is used as a bit of a garbage can for hard to identify species, probably containing more than one genus. This species is considered by some to be a member of the genus Ancistomus, a distinct possibility.

      L037 -- Hypostomus sp.
      Common name(s): L037
      Synonyms: None (sometimes called a member of the Hypostomus cochliodon group, but is not)
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore
      Max Size: 8"
      Locality: Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Not reported in aquaria, probably a mud bank spawner.
      Notes: Identification of Hypostomus has no individual trait, and so species is recognised by colour and distinct patterning. Not rare, but an uncommon import.

      L038 -- Peckoltia sp.
      Common name(s): L038, Tiger Peckoltia
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: Omnivore with preference to protein based foods (worms, prawns etc.)
      Max Size: 4.5"
      Locality: Brazil, Mocajuba on the Rio Tocantins
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Similar to L002 but stripes are much thicker around the head, and less uniform. Also confused with L072 and L080.

      L039 -- Pseudancistrus niger
      Common name(s): L039
      Synonyms: Guyanancistrus niger, Hemiancistrus niger, Lasiancistrus niger
      Special Water Care: None, but prefers a fast flowing current.
      Diet: Omnivore with preference towards meaty foods.
      Max Size: 11"
      Locality: Oyapock River basin
      Spawning: Not reported, cave spawner.
      Notes: A very wide pleco reportedly more than 18cm between the tip of pectoral spines. Found in swift flow, among boulders, gravel and cobbles.

      L040 -- Harttia surinamensis
      Common name(s): L040
      Synonyms: None
      Special Water Care: None
      Diet: N/A
      Max Size: 7.4"
      Locality: Coastal rivers from Suriname River east to Approuague River, restricted to the Suriname River drainage
      Spawning: Cave spawner
      Notes: Not seen in the aquaria trade often, if at all. Found in the upper course of rivers on rocky and sandy bottoms
       
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