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    Piranha Species Information

    Discussion in 'Piranha' started by Joshy, Jan 1, 2007.

    1. Joshy

      Joshy MFK Members

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      Scientific Name: Pygocentrus nattereri
      Common Names: Red Bellied Piranha, Red Belly, Red
      Distribution: Abundant and widespread throughout the rivers and water ways of South America.
      Size: 10 inches (Captive), 12 inches (Wild)
      Captivity: 20 gallons per nattereri is the common rule. However surface area plays more of a role than volume. As a shoaling fish, it is recommended that they be kept in at least groups of four. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 22-30C, and pH of 5.5-8.0 is required.
      Personal Comment: These are one of the most durable and forgiving piranhas, and highly recommended for the beginner. However they are also one of the more skittish and nervous piranhas and may hide a lot when first introduced to the tank. It is recommended to give them plenty of hiding spaces, dim light and a good water current.


      Scientific Name: Pygocentrus cariba
      Common Names: Cariba Piranha, Black Shoulder/Black Ear Piranha
      Distribution: The Rio Orinoco lowland basin and the Llanos region in Venezuela
      Size: 12 inches (Captive), 14 inches (Wild)
      Captivity: Although 20 gallons per cariba is used, many recommend 25 gallon each due to their aggression. As a shoaling fish, it is recommended that they be kept in at least groups of four. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: Known to be very aggressive by all standards, including amongst themselves. They are also a lot less skittish than nattereri if put in the correct conditions.


      Scientific Name: Pygocentrus piraya
      Common Names: Piraya Piranha
      Distribution: Only found in the Rio São Francisco in Brazil.
      Size: 16 inches (Captive), 24 inches (Wild)
      Captivity: At least 40 gallons per piraya is needed, the more gallons per fish the better. As a shoaling fish, it is recommended that they be kept in at least groups of four, although this is normally not possible due to their size. A powerful and efficient filtration system is especially needed due to their large waste. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: This is the king of the Pyocentrus species, and arguably the king of the entire piranha species in terms of size and possible aggression. These are the least skittish of the Pyocentrus species, and certainly the biggest. However for them to reach their potential size, a large tank and excellent water quality is needed.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus rhombeus
      Common Names: Rhombeus Piranha, Black Piranha, Rhom
      Distribution: Widespread throughout South America.
      Size: 16 inches (Captive), 22 inches (wild)
      Captivity: Tank size and volume depends on the size of the fish, however 100 gallons is the minimum, and 150 gallons being good for a full adult in order to reach a good size. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: Their mean looks reflect this fish’s temperament. Like most of the Serrasalmus species, they are solitary. They go through vast transformations physically during their life-span. They are also very slow growers, but as they grow they become less skittish and bolder. Certainly a show/centre piece fish.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus spilopleura
      Common Names: Gold Piranha, Spilo
      Distribution: The Rio Guaporé river basin in Brazil
      Size: 12 inches (both Captive and Wild)
      Captivity: Despite a very few success stories of shoaling, they are solitary fish. 60-70 gallons are required to keep a solo one. To attempt to shoal, a large amount of water will be needed per fish with lots of hiding places. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: This is one of the few piranha species to breed in home aquariums. However shoaling success is few and far between and often short lived. It is also thought that Spilo are part of a very complex species that has much variety depending on habitat.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus elongatus
      Common Names: Elongated Piranha, Elong, Pike Piranha.
      Distribution: In many different types of waterways in Venezuela/Colombia and Amazonian Brazil.
      Size: 10 inches (Captive), 14 inches (wild)
      Captivity: This is one of the most active and fast swimming of the species. Therefore they need at least 100 gallons (or more) to themselves and a very strong current to swim against. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: This is normally a very aggressive piranha and very bold once settled. Very efficient filtration and a very strong current is needed to keep this fish in good health and active.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus brandtii
      Common Names: Brandtii Piranha
      Distribution: Rio São Francisco and some of its tributaries in Brazil
      Size: 12 inches (Captive and Wild)
      Captivity: A tank of 60-70 gallons will do fine for one of these, they can be active in patrolling the tank. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: This species is becoming very known for its aggressiveness and boldness. It will attack like people imagine piranhas to, and will not skitter away from humans or traffic around the tank. A real show piranha that certainly puts action into the tank considering it is solo.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus manueli
      Common Names: Manuel's Piranha, Manuel
      Distribution: Llanos in Venezuela, Rio Amazonas and Rio Negro.
      Size: 14 inches (Captive), 18 inches (wild)
      Captivity: These are very rare in captivity, however they are very active and agile swimmers, and have a potentially very large size. Hence adults need 100 gallons. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: If you come across one of these, keep it, they are very hard to find in the hobby due to being vulnerable during transporting. While those that do survive are often rather small. But to keep this active piranha swimming a strong current is needed in the tank.


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus geryi
      Common Names: Geryi Piranha, Violet Line Piranha
      Distribution: Rio Araguaia in Brazil
      Size: 10 inches (Captive), 12 inches (wild)
      Captivity: Despite a very few success stories of shoaling, they are solitary fish. 60-70 gallons are required to keep a solo one. To attempt to shoal, a large amount of water will be needed per fish with lots of hiding places. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: Due to this piranhas distribution being very limited, they are rarely seen in the hobby. Therefore if you find one, buy it and hold onto it! They are very expensive. And despite shoaling being successful with some, the price tag of this piranha means you will not want to risk losing your money nor these attractive fish!


      Scientific Name: Serrasalmus compressus
      Common Names: Compressus Piranha, Compress
      Distribution: The Rio Madeira and its tributaries in Brazil
      Size: 8 inches (Captive), 10 inches (wild)
      Captivity: A tank of 60-70 gallons will do fine for one of these, despite their small size they can be active. A powerful and efficient filtration system is needed. A temperature of 24-30C, and pH of 5.5-7.5 is required.
      Personal Comment: This species is becoming rarer in the wild, and hence harder to purchase in the hobby. They are also known to be very skittish when first introduced to their tank. Just give them plenty of cover, dim lights and a current, and they will prove to be a just as piranha like as any other.
       
    2. Joshy

      Joshy MFK Members

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      I have reposted this thread following some additions and corrections to make it completely water-tight. Hope it comes in useful for some of our members. Feedback and comments would be really appreciated.
       
    3. pirahna1950

      pirahna1950 MFK Members

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      Scientific Name:
      Pygopristis denticulata (Müller and Troschel, 1844)


      Common Names:
      Denticulata Piranha, Lobetoothed Piranha, Big-Toothed Piranha, Gold Piranha, "Caribito", "Palometa Caribe".

      Range:
      South America: Brazil, Venezuela, French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana.

      Maximum Size:
      The maximum size of the Five-cusped Piranha is around 20cm. (8"), although in it rarely exceeds 15cm. (6") in size.


      Body Characteristics:
      The Five-cusped Piranha is a silver bodied fish with lemon-trimmings on fins and oversized adipose fin. Resembles a Pacu or Silver Dollar but it has a pugnose and semi-slung lower jaw (to suit the more predatory lifestyle).
      The body is similar in shape to P. nattereri, except the fins are oversized including the adipose fin. A pattern of elongated bars and even dark speckled spots may be present on the body. Adults may turn dark brown in color. Juveniles bare a striking resemble to species found in Metynnis. Fish posseses a unique tooth structure. It is crenulated (penticuspid) making it fairly easy to identify from other species of piranha.
      The colors of this species are variable, but normally the upper part of the body is blue, the lower part well as the base of the caudal fin yellow, or orange, and the rest of the body bright red (eye, cheeks, and fins, in their distal part for the dorsal and caudal fins). The the dorsal, anal and tail fins have a greyish-white margin at the ends.


      Distinctive/unique features:

      Clear eyes.
      Laterally compressed body.
      Unique shape of the tooth.
      Yellowish to red fins with grey base.
      Convex, somewhat Pygocentrus-shaped head.


      Tank:
      Adult fish need a tank of at least 40x16" (100x40cm.), while younger specimen can temporarily be kept in smaller tanks, the minimum being a tank of 24x12x12" (60x30cm.) Due to its relatively mild temperament, this species, unlike many other piranha species, can be kept in a group: the minimum tank size for a group of 3 fish is 48x20" (120x50cm.)
      The aquarium needs to be decorated with plants, (drift)wood and rocks to provide hiding places for this often somewhat shy and skittish fish (especially during the first weeks/months). But an open area to swim should also be offered. A powerhead can be used to add a little extra water currents, to mimic its natural habitat.


      Compatible Species:
      The Five-cusped Piranha is blessed with a relatively peaceful character compraed to many of its relatives, but it still remains a parasitic fin nipper and scale eater, as well as a predator by nature. Because of this, it's best kept either on its own, or, if the size of the tank allows it, in a small group.
      If the tank is decoarted with enough hiding places and secluded area's, a Pleco, Raphael Catfish or other heavily armed catfish may be able to cohabit with this species.


      Diet:
      Fish (fillets, frozen fish and live feeders.
       
    4. davo

      davo MFK Members

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      Just a thought to spice this excellent thread up. Maybe pics of juvie and adult forms of each species alongside the information would be cool ;) good job peeps.
       
    5. Joshy

      Joshy MFK Members

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      I like the idea a lot. When I next get a lot of spare time I might crack on with that. Only problem is, by using so many pictures I might have to ask permission for nearly every one. It’s not like being cheeking and borrowing just the odd picture.

      Good stuff pirahna1950, maybe you could do the identification on the Pygopristis denticulata in the other sticky as well if you get some spare time?
       
    6. pirahna1950

      pirahna1950 MFK Members

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    7. Chad55

      Chad55 MFK Members

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      I kind of feel special...like all this was a cause of me:D . Hehe jp guys nice info on the dentic. Maybe in a few months I can add some personal experience!

      Chad
       
    8. arocolin

      arocolin MFK Members

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      Great information.. any photo to show.. ;)
       
    9. JASONW

      JASONW New Member

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      Hey Man, you may not be good with computers but they are some awesome pics of a lot of different species. I didn't even know there were that many different species!!:WHOA:
       
    10. fishpost

      fishpost MFK Members

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      Is this still being worked on?
       

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