# Pipe Sizing Charts and Flow Rates

#### shelbybmc

##### Blue Tier VIP
Bump for the previous question Sent from my iPhone using MonsterAquariaNetwork app

#### shelbybmc

##### Blue Tier VIP
Anyone Sent from my iPhone using MonsterAquariaNetwork app

##### Feeder Fish
i have been trying find a break down of the flow rates to make it easier to figure plumbing for my sumps

#### Black Manta

##### Exodon
Thank you!!!
Building a trickle filter I believe this chart will be useful for my calculations and when buying hoses and fittings. I was also thinking of constructing my own hob. But I may have sourced a 900 gal box of craigslist for cheap.

#### Mike Thorn

##### Black Skirt Tetra
Just wanted to say thanks for putting these numbers and charts together. This is data I didn't know I needed and I can't wait to start doing the math on my tank build.

Invaluable stuff!!

#### Starship

##### Feeder Fish
Wow, lot of data.

I'm using a using a 1" PVC pipe as a drain, so I can expect 600 GPH, and thus need a rated for 600GPH MAX, less would work, just less flow?

#### Jerkinthetank

##### Jack Dempsey
I made a really nice chart in Excel but it turns into a mess when copying it here, so here are smaller charts and their explanations:

Cross Sectional Area (in square inches) - Pipe sizes vs. their cross sectional area. Useful for dividing flow between pipes.
size __area
1/2 = .1963
3/4 = .4418
1.0 = .7854
1.25= 1.227
1.5 = 1.767
2.0 = 3.142

Maximum Gravitational Vertical Flow - This is what we look for when sizing drains or DIY overflows. The flow under the power of gravity reaches a maximum in the same way an object reaches Terminal Velocity as it falls through the air. The gravitational force is countered by the waters viscosity (resistance to flow) and the frictional resistance of the pipe. The viscosity creates a minimum vertical length to acheive the maximum flow. If the vertical pipe length is less than the minimum, the flow rate will be somewhat less than the pipes maximum potential.
size _GPM __GPH
1/2 = 2.50 = 150
3/4 = 5.63 = 337.5
1.0 = 10.0 = 600
1.25=15.6 = 937.5
1.5 = 22.5 = 1350
2.0 = 40.0 = 2400

Min. Vertical Length
1/2 = 2"
3/4 = 5"
1.0 = 9"
1.25= 14"
1.5 = 20"
2.0 = 36"

Frictional Head Loss per 90 (measured in Feet of Head)
1/2 = .00970
3/4 = .00220
1.0 = .00386
1.25= .00602
1.5 = .00878
2.0 = .00156

Anyway... Each measurement is at the pipes maximum flow rate in the Vertical Flow Rate chart. When calculating the loss for the pump side, these values are slightly more.

There is a very conservative rule when estimating head loss. It is one foot of head per fitting. This rule does not take into account flow rates, pressure, actual frictional losses, etc. It does not have to because it is too conservative. If you multiply any of the above head losses by one thousand fittings, you will be very surprised at the actual head loss. (hint: just move the decimal to the right three places.)

Gravitational Horizontal Flow This is for horizontal applications that do not rely on a pump, or the force of a vertical pipe. These flow rates are considerably less than the vertical rates because gravity does not offer a significant horizontal force. It is a balance of gravity and the viscosity vs. the cross sectional area of the pipe.
size_ GPM
1/2 = 1.563
3/4 = 3.517
1.0 = 6.253
1.25= 9.769
1.5 = 14.07
2.0 = 25.0

In this application, you would use the chart for Vertical Flow. In this application, you would use the chart for Horizontal Flow. Need to read this when. Not at lunch having issues with flow on my 180 set up

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